The Development of the Almaty Process
The Almaty Process was conceived in 2010 and operationalized in 2013 following a series of consultations and conferences:
In 2011, at the Regional Conference on Refugee Protection and International Migration in Central Asia, participants recognized the importance of developing national policies to protect people forming part of mixed movements, called for measures to prevent and combat trafficking in persons and provide effective protection to the victims of this crime, and drew attention to the importance of finding solutions to mixed population movements. They also recognized the importance of enhancing cooperation to control irregular migration, secure borders, and stem terrorist threats by implementing border management in a way that preserves the asylum space and is consistent with international law. Through the unanimous adoption of the Almaty Declaration, participating States, including the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, the Republic of Azerbaijan, the Islamic Republic of Iran, the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, the Russian Federation, the Republic of Tajikistan, the Republic of Turkey, and Turkmenistan committed to establishing enhanced regional cooperation on mixed migration.
Since then, the Central Asian States (the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, the Republic of Tajikistan and Turkmenistan) made significant strides towards translating the Almaty Declaration into action. In 2012, they nominated National Coordinators at the Vice-Ministerial level and endorsed the Regional Cooperation Framework and Regional Action Plan. The Regional Cooperation Framework seeks to foster regional dialogue and practical cooperation on issues of common concern and to build the capacities of States and other stakeholders to respond to challenges raised by mixed movements in a more predictable, efficient and protection-sensitive manner. The Regional Action Plan provides concrete actions to that end. Participants further concluded in recommendations on the preparations for the launching of the Almaty Process.
The Almaty Process was operationalized on 5 June 2013 during the Ministerial Conference on Refugee Protection and International Migration in Almaty, Kazakhstan. The Conference resulted in two outcome documents. The Communiqué reaffirms the commitment of States to address the multiple challenges resulting from mixed migration movements in broader Central Asia through regional dialogue, practical cooperation and the establishment of appropriate national legal frameworks to ensure the human rights of migrants, access to international protection for those in need, and durable solutions for refugees. The Communiqué also formally endorsed the Operating Modalities for the Almaty Process which set out the objectives of the Process, outline its membership, the terms of reference of the Chairmanship and the Support Unit, the participation of observers and the frequency of meetings. The Communiqué and the Operating Modalities were endorsed by the participating States, including the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, the Republic of Azerbaijan, the Islamic Republic of Iran, the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, the Republic of Tajikistan, the Republic of Turkey and Turkmenistan. The Islamic Republic of Iran holds Observer status in the Process.